Words for “so”

When I study foreign languages, it’s very important for me to know the words that explain causation. Words like “then”, “therefore”, “so”, “consequently”. And it surprises me that textbooks don’t teach them early. Maybe it says something about how my mind is wired? That to me it’s important to understand the explanations and meanings of everything, and that other people care less about it?

Here are some of those words in a few languages:

  • Catalan: doncs, per això, idò, llavors
  • Spanish: entonces, pues
  • French: donc, puis
  • Russian: поэтому, потому, значит, так что, стало быть
  • Esperanto: do
  • Polish: więc, zatem
  • Italian: perciò, quindi, dunque, pertanto
  • Portuguese: então, por isso, portanto
  • Hebrew: אז, לכן

Can you add it for your language? I tried to find it for Hindi, for example. My textbook (Rupert Snell, “Complete Hindi”) didn’t have anything clear like in the first few lessons (or maybe I missed it).

I can find some clues at the description of “so” in OmegaWiki, but I’d appreciate human input. Thanks.

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6 Responses to “Words for “so””


  1. 1 Surinder 2013-10-12 at 14:09

    in marathi>> “mhanje”= implies, hence, (it/this) means (in konkani it changes to “monje” hence, namely, so)
    in hindi >> “yaani” = hence, so
    punjabi>> no equivalent one word for it… “es layi” = because, so, “es vaste” = because of, hence so

  2. 2 יובל פינטר 2013-10-12 at 18:38

    It’s not my language, but in Czech it’s tak and (a) proto.

  3. 3 Surinder 2013-10-12 at 19:35

    forgot to mention- just the way we say “thank you soo much” (‘so’ signifying quantity) and if, say we are angry and we say “SO??” (here ‘so’ means “AND??” similarly the above words have very different meanings …and just like all languages, its meaning depends on the emotion in which these words are expressed. “mhanje” literally means “meaning”… so does “monje” but the meaning of these words can be molded appropriately by incorporating emotions.

  4. 4 Sayak Sarkar 2013-10-13 at 07:27

    I guess “toh” would be a good word for “so” in both both Hindi “तो” and Bengali “তো”. Though it is more of a everyday word used quite commonly.

  5. 5 Nikola Smolenski 2013-10-14 at 06:59

    Serbian: онда (then), дакле (therefore), тако да (so that), зато (because), јер (because), стога (because of), због чега (because of)…

    It is interesting that there are many ways to say it, all with tiny variations, and the variations are not really comparable between languages, even between close languages.

  6. 6 કાર્તિક 2013-10-14 at 09:44

    Gujarati: તો (same as Hindi) or એટલે. It depends on what context you use ‘so’.


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